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社交网站心理学:朋友圈晒幸福不是真幸福!朋友圈自拍照揭示你是什么人!

唧唧堂2020-10-27 06:03:42

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梵高自拍照,by Domenic Bahmann。source:behance.net


唧唧堂获得新加坡南洋理工大学心理系教授邱林教授(新浪微博:@邱林_新加坡南洋理工大学心理系)的特别允许,介绍邱教授关于社交网站(SNS)中心理学及社会学的近期研究论文四篇:1.看朋友圈里的自拍就知道你是怎样的人;2.我们在朋友圈里发的东西都更正能量;3.朋友圈里晒幸福不是真幸福;4.论我们是怎么把复杂的理论解释给别人听的。


邱教授是上海上海交通大学理学学士,美国西北大学博士,南洋理工大学人文与社会科学学院心理系助理教授。他感兴趣的研究领域包括:社会心理学,文化心理学,工程心理学,心理,计算机为媒介的通信,人机交互,计算社会科学(基于大数据,Agent建模)。


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看朋友圈里的自拍就知道你是怎样的人



蒙娜丽莎自拍照。source:hellogiggles.com


自拍照可以反映性格?


大部分人或多或少都会再微博和微信朋友圈发发自拍照,但是很少有人知道自拍是怎么反映主人的个性的,也很少有人知道人们如何通过自拍评判其它人。 本研究通过测试被试者的性格五要素(Big Five personality),并将结果与被试者在社交网站上发布的自拍照金星对比,来探究一个人自拍与其个性之间的关系。 结果发现自拍与性格五要素(尽责性、亲和性、情绪稳定性和经验开放性相关。


研究还进行了零相识人格判断(zero-acquaintance personality judgment),发现观察者对自拍主人的个性判断与性格五要素的结果非常一致,特别是在开放性的判断上更加准确。


本研究首先揭示了自拍与个性之间关系,并且提供了一种可以分析自拍照的图片编码方式。然后讨论了自拍照在体现性格方面与其他种类的照片的区别,还揭示了自拍与社交网站用户印象管理(impression management)之间的关系。


下面是两个最典型的自拍与人格对应的线索,你中箭了吗 ;)

- 情绪越不稳定, 越喜欢嘟嘴。

- 相机放得越高,宜人性越低


论文原文

What does your selfie say about you?

Lin Qiu, Jiahui Lu, Shanshan Yang, Weina Qu, Tingshao Zhu.

Computers in Human Behavior. Received 6 October 2014, Revised 15 June 2015, Accepted 18 June 2015, Available online 24 June 2015


Abstract

Selfies refer to self-portraits taken by oneself using a digital camera or a smartphone. They become increasingly popular in social media. However, little is known about how selfies reflect their owners’ personality traits and how people judge others’ personality from selfies. In this study, we examined the association between selfies and personality by measuring participants’ Big Five personality and coding their selfies posted on a social networking site. We found specific cues in selfies related to agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. We also examined zero-acquaintance personality judgment and found that observers had moderate to strong agreement in their ratings of Big Five personality based on selfies. However, they could only accurately predict selfie owners’ degree of openness. This study is the first to reveal personality-related cues in selfies and provide a picture-coding scheme that can be used to analyze selfies. We discussed the difference between personality expression in selfies and other types of photos, and its possible relationship with impression management of social media users.



我们在朋友圈里发的东西都更正能量


source:luulla.com


社交网站上的情感流露:社交网络结构和心理需求的角色


社交媒体上的情绪表达有什么特征?会怎样受朋友圈的大小和紧密度的影响? 本实验室在Computers in Human Behaviors 发表的文章中发现:人们在社交媒体上表达的情绪,比在日记中记录的情绪更多。而且,朋友圈越大,正面情绪表达越多;朋友圈越紧密,正负情绪都表达得更多,而这一切是受不同心理需求所影响的。


我们进行了三项研究,来探究Facebook的社交结构,是如何影响人们在网上的情绪流露的。


研究结果显示:情感流露,这与社交网络的用户密度以及规模有着密切的关系。社交网络密度,更多的Facebook用户会流露出更为正面或是更为负面的情感。社交网络的密度和情感流露之间的关系,是由于人们越来越强烈的自我表达的需求。而社交网络规模更大的用户,则会更多表达自己的正面情感。


社交网络规模和情感流露之间的关系,是由于人们越来越强烈的印象管理(impression management)的需求。我们的研究对先前的研究进行了拓展,展现了社交网络结构对情感流露影响的心理机制。研究发现,社交网络的规模和密度和不同的心理需求有关,这导致了情感流露的不同模式。



论文原文

Emotional disclosure on social networking sites: The role of network structure and psychological needs

Han Lin, William Tov, Lin Qiu.

Computers in Human Behavior, doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.09.045


Abstract

We conducted three studies to understand how online emotional disclosure is influenced by social network structure on Facebook. Results showed that emotional disclosure was associated with both the density and size of users’ personal networks. Facebook users with denser networks disclosed more positive and negative emotions, and the relation between network density and emotional disclosure was mediated by stronger need for emotional expression. Facebook users with larger networks on Facebook disclosed more positive emotions, and the relation between network size and emotional disclosure was mediated by a stronger need for impression management. Our study extends past research by revealing the psychological mechanisms through which personal social network structure influences emotional disclosure. It suggests that social network size and density are associated with different psychological needs, which in turn lead to different patterns of emotional disclosure.



朋友圈里晒幸福不是真幸福



faking happiness may lead to blues by Maria Hergueta. source:nerillustrationagency.com


Facebook状态更新会反映主观幸福感吗?类型(valence)和时间很重要!


现如今,全世界有数以百万的人在使用社交网络来表达自己的日常情感。很多研究者都试图利用社交媒体,来研究用户的在线行为和心理状态。然而,先前的研究对Facebook上自产生的内容,是否能反映除用户的主观幸福感(subjective well-being, SWB)有着不同的研究结果。


在本研究中,我们分析了Facebook的状态更新,来决定用户的情感表达在多大程度上预告了他们的主观幸福感 —— 尤其是他们对生活的自报满意度。


我们发现,Facebook上积极的情感表达,并不意味着生活满意度高,但过去9到10个月之内消极的情感表达,却和生活满意度紧密相关。


这些研究结果说明,情感表达的类型和时间,都会决定用户在Facebook上的状态是否会影响用户的主观幸福感。我们的发现剖析了网络社交媒体,并提高了我们对用户的自产生内容是如何反映用户心理状态这一问题的认识。



论文原文

Do Facebook Status Updates Reflect Subjective Well-being? Valence and Time Matter

Pan Liu, William Tov, Michal Kosinski, David J. Stillwell, Lin Qiu.

Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking


Abstract

Nowadays, millions of people around the world use social networking sites to express everyday thoughts and feelings. Many researchers have tried to make use of social media to study users’ online behaviors and psychological states. However, previous studies show mixed results about whether self-generated contents on Facebook reflect users’ subjective well-being (SWB). In this study, we analyzed Facebook status updates to determine the extent to which users’ emotional expression predicted their SWB—specifically their self-reported satisfaction with life. We found that positive emotional expressions on Facebook did not correlate with life satisfaction, whereas negative emotional expressions within the past nine to ten months (but not beyond) were significantly related to life satisfaction. These findings suggest that both the type of emotional expressions and the time frame of status updates determine whether emotional expressions in Facebook status updates can effectively reflect users’ SWB. Our findings shed light on the characteristics of online social media and improve our understanding of how user-generated contents reflect users’ psychological states.


Keywords: Social networking, Facebook, emotional expression, subjective wellbeing, happiness.




论我们是怎么把复杂的理论解释给别人听的



illustration by Joan M. Mas. source:flickr.com


观点在复杂文化系统中的传播:描述性规范(descriptive norms)的形成


人们在做决策的时候会考虑到描述性规范,即使他们自己并不一定相信这些规范,或者这个规范不符合群体偏好,又或者这个决策很冒险。


在对文化和规范的研究中,普遍存在的一个挑战是:在思想的传播里,去识别出这些社会文化过程,使之成为社会描述性规范的一部分,正如那些将思想扩散包含在内的过程。


在这篇论文中,作者评述了两种现有的关于观点传播和规范形成的看法:新传播主义(neo-diffusionism),和复杂性理论(complexity theory)。


除此之外,作者还通过一个代理人基(agent-based)模型研究来展示:复杂性理论是如何通过人际交流解释观点,在一个复杂文化系统内传播的。研究的初步结果显示,只要一个系统中,大部分代理人通过交谈分享相同的观点,系统内多数观点和少数观点的分布就不会发生变化。有趣的是,当以自我为中心的讲说伴随着与他人的交流欲望时,这种讲说会导致系统内认知同质等级的升高(观点更统一了)。而当听众设计伴随着与他人的交流欲望时,系统内的认知同质等级也会升高。本文将会讨论这种描述性规范的产生所导致的结果。



论文原文

Diffusion of Opinions in a Complex Culture System: Implications for Emergence of Descriptive Norms

Wenjun Gao, Lin Qiu, Chi-yue Chiu, Yiyin Yang

Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.


Abstract

People take descriptive norms into account when making decisions, even when they do not personally believe in the norms; when the norms do not correspond to the actual preferences of the group; and when the decision is a high stake one. A prevailing challenge in culture and norm research is to identity the sociocultural processes through which ideas spread and become part of the descriptive norms in the society, as well as the processes through the diffusion of ideas are contained. In the present article, the authors review two emerging communication perspectives on idea diffusion and norm emergence: neo-diffusionism and complexity theory. In addition, the authors illustrate in an agent-based modeling study how complexity theory can shed new light on how opinions spread through interpersonal communication in a complex cultural system. Preliminary results show that as long as most agents in the system prefer talking to others sharing the same opinion, the relative distribution of majority and minority opinions in the system will not change. Interestingly, when egocentric speech is coupled with the preference to communicate with dissimilar others, it leads to an increase of cognitive homogeneity level (i.e. opinion consensus) in the system. In contrast, when audience design is coupled with the preference to communicate with dissimilar others, it leads to an increase of cognitive diversity level in the system. The implications of the results for emergence of descriptive norms are discussed.


Keywords: Agent-based modeling, shared reality, communication, norm emergence



研究人介绍



邱林,上海交通大学理学学士,美国西北大学博士,南洋理工大学人文与社会科学学院心理系助理教授。


他感兴趣的研究领域包括:社会心理学,文化心理学,工程心理学,心理,计算机为媒介的通信,人机交互,计算社会科学(基于大数据,Agent建模)。










Hengzhan,本文译者,唧唧堂研究人。


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